Volume 5, Issue 2 (September 2018)                   J Educ Community Health 2018, 5(2): 62-71 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sadeghi S, Pouretemad H R, Khosrowabadi R, Fathabadi J, Nikbakht S. Impact of Using Digital Devices on the Health of Children: A Systematic Review. J Educ Community Health. 2018; 5 (2) :62-71
URL: http://jech.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-466-en.html
1- Department of Clinical & Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. , pouretemad.h@gmail.com
3- Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Educational and Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
5- Child Neurology Fellowship, Children Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (2152 Views)
Background and Objective: Nowadays, the use of digital devices such as televisions, DVDs, smartphones, tablets, and computer games is increasing among children. The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the potential effects of the use of media in children.
Instruments and Methods: In the present systematic review, domestic and International articles investigating the effect of using digital devices on children's health were examined (International articles published from 2007 to 2017). This study was conducted in accordance with the Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM) guidelines. After the screening, by attention to the articles outcome variables, results in 3 categories including physical, cognitive, social-emotional-behavioral effects were analyzed and deduced.
Results: The extreme use of media is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, changes in food habits and the pattern of sleep, structural changes in the brain, motor and language delays, weaknesses in the vocabulary domain, verbal intelligence and executive functions, emotional, communicative, social, and behavioral problems.
Conclusion: Due to the adverse effects of digital devices on the health of children, the use of digital devices should be limited and parents. Parents should enrich the child's environment with social, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral stimuli by creating a lifestyle that is full of human interaction so that the children will be less inclined towards digital devices, thus preventing the harmful effects of using digital devices.
Persian Full-Text [PDF 260 kb]   (335 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Systematic Review Articles | Subject: Addictive Behaviors
Received: 2018/02/25 | Accepted: 2018/05/5

References
1. Radesky JS, Christakis DA. Increased screen time: Implications for early childhood development and behavior. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2016;63(5):827-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2016.06.006
2. Jimenez ME, Wade Jr R, Lin Y, Morrow LM, Reichman NE. Adverse experiences in early childhood and kindergarten outcomes. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):e20151839. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1839
3. Wade R Jr, Cronholm PF, Fein JA, Forke CM, Davis MB, Harkins-Schwarz M, et al. Household and community-level adverse childhood experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;52:135-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.11.021
4. Pouretemad HR, Sadeghi S, Rahmati Y. Digital nanning and autism spectrum disorder. J Except Educ. 2017;17(3):39-44. [Persian]
5. Kabali HK, Irigoyen MM, Nunez-Davis R, Budacki JG, Mohanty SH, Leister KP, et al. Exposure and use of mobile media devices by young children. Pediatrics. 2015;136(6):1044-50. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-2151
6. Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF. Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Menlo Park: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2010.
7. Brown A. Media use by children younger than 2 years. Pediatrics. 2011; 128(5):1040-5. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-1753
8. Committee on Public Education. Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics. 2001;107(2):423-6. DOI: 10.1542/peds.107.2.423
9. Sallis JF, Owen N, Fisher E. Ecological models of health behavior. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, K. Viswanath K, editors. Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons; 2015. pp. 43-64.
10. Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25(2):80-91. DOI: 10.1207/S15324796ABM2502_03
11. Adachi-Mejia AM, Longacre MR, Gibson JJ, Beach ML, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Dalton MA. Children with a TV in their bedroom at higher risk for being overweight. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31(4):644-51. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803455
12. Schmitz KH, Lytle LA, Phillips GA, Murray DM, Birnbaum AS, Kubik MY. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity and sedentary leisure habits in young adolescents: The teens eating for energy and nutrition at school study. Prev Med. 2002;34(2):266-78. DOI: 10.1006/pmed.2001.0982
13. Anderson DR, Pempek TA. Television and very young children. Am Behav Sci. 2005;48(5):505-22. DOI: 10.1177/0002764204271506
14. Sigman A. Well connected? The biological implications of ‘social networking’. Biologist. 2009;56(1):14-20.
15. Lin LY, Cherng RJ, Chen YJ, Chen YJ, Yang HM. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children. Infant Behav Dev. 2015;38:20-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.12.005
16. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
17. Kostyrka‐Allchorne K, Cooper NR, Simpson A. Touchscreen generation: Children's current media use, parental supervision methods and attitudes towards contemporary media. Acta Paediatr. 2017;106(4):654-62. DOI: 10.1111/apa.13707
18. Garmy P, Clausson EK, Nyberg P, Jakobsson U. Overweight and television and computer habits in Swedish school‐age children and adolescents: A cross‐sectional study. Nurs Health Sci. 2014;16(2):143-8. DOI: 10.1111/nhs.12076
19. Russ SA, Larson K, Franke TM, Halfon N. Associations between media use and health in US children. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9(5):300-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2009.04.006
20. Daqiqi Khodashahri A, Baneshi L. The relationship between watch time of television programs with overweight and anxiety in elementary students. Q J Commun Res. 2015;21(4):157-77. [Persian]
21. Kalantari N, Doaei S, Malmir H, Gholamalizade M, Nemat Gorgani Sh. The relationship between TV viewing and its impact on children with food groups intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) in children with 2 to 6 years old in Tehran. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci. 2015;7(2):369-80. [Persian] DOI: 10.29252/jnkums.7.2.369
22. Kabir K, Tizvir A, Hadiyan S, Moslemkhani Z. Investigating the relationship between rate of use of television and computer games with weight disorders in elementary school students of Karaj in academic year 2012-2013. Alborz Univ Med J. 2013;2(4):211-6. [Persian]
23. Seyedamini B, Moradi A, Malek A, Ebrahimi Mamaghani M. The role of watching TV in obesity and behavioral problems in children. Iran J Nurs. 2010;23(67):8-14. [Persian]
24. Borghese MM, Tremblay MS, Leduc G, Boyer C, Bélanger P, Le Blanc AG, et al. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: A cross-sectional analysis. J Nutr Sci. 2015;4:e8. DOI: 10.1017/jns.2014.72
25. Nuutinen T, Ray C, Roos E. Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study?. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:684. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-684
26. Brockmann PE, Diaz B, Damiani F, Villarroel L, Núñez F, Bruni O. Impact of television on the quality of sleep in preschool children. Sleep Med. 2016;20:140-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2015.06.005
27. Alfano CA, Zakem AH, Costa NM, Taylor LK, Weems CF. Sleep problems and their relation to cognitive factors, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(6):503-12. PMID: 19067319
28. Buckhalt JA, El‐Sheikh M, Keller PS, Kelly RJ. Concurrent and longitudinal relations between children’s sleep and cognitive functioning: The moderating role of parent education. Child Dev. 2009;80(3):875-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01303.x
29. Touchette E, Côté SM, Petit D, Liu X, Boivin M, Falissard B, et al. Short nighttime sleep-duration and hyperactivity trajectories in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):e985-93.
30. Takeuchi H, Taki Y, Hashizume H, Asano K, Asano M, Sassa Y, et al. The impact of television viewing on brain structures: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25(5):1188-97. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bht315
31. Glaser D. Child abuse and neglect and the brain--a review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41(1):97-116. DOI: 10.1017/S0021963099004990
32. Sale A, editor. Environmental experience and plasticity of the developing brain. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2016. DOI: 10.1002/9781118931684
33. Lanier J. Internet: Technology and its discontents. Nature. 2014;513(7518):313-4. DOI: 10.1038/513313a
34. Chonchaiya W, Pruksananonda C. Television viewing associates with delayed language development. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97(7):977-82. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00831.x
35. Bittman M, Rutherford L, Brown J, Unsworth L. Digital natives? new and old media and children's outcomes. Aust J Educ. 2011;55(2):161-75. DOI: 10.1177/000494411105500206
36. Zimmerman FJ, Christakis DA, Meltzoff AN. Associations between media viewing and language development in children under age 2 years. J Pediatr. 2007;151(4):364-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.04.071
37. Lillard AS, Drell MB, Richey EM, Boguszewski K, Smith ED. Further examination of the immediate impact of television on children’s executive function. Dev Psychol. 2015;51(6):792-805. DOI: 10.1037/a0039097
38. Nathanson AI, Aladé F, Sharp ML, Rasmussen EE, Christy K. The relation between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers. Dev Psychol. 2014;50(5):1497-506. DOI: 10.1037/a0035714
39. Barr R, Lauricella A, Zack E, Calvert SL. Infant and early childhood exposure to adult-directed and child-directed television programming: Relations with cognitive skills at age four. Merrill Palmer Q. 2010;56(1):21-48. DOI: 10.1353/mpq.0.0038
40. Miyake A, Friedman NP. The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Four general conclusions. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2012;21(1):8-14. DOI: 10.1177/0963721411429458
41. Sigman A. The impact of screen media on children: A eurovision for parliament. In: Clouder C, Heys B, Matthes M, Sullivan P, editors. Improving the Quality of Childhood in Europe. East Sussex: European Council for Steiner Waldorf Education; 2012. pp. 88-121.
42. Saffariyan Hamedani S, Abdollahi M, Daeizadeh H, Bayat Y. The relationship between the amount of playing computer games and students’ mental health and academic performance. Inf Commun Technol Educ Sci. 2013;3(3):5-20. [Persian]
43. Radesky JS, Schumacher J, Zuckerman B. Mobile and interactive media use by young children: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Pediatrics. 2015;135(1):1-3. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-2251
44. Cheng S, Maeda T, Yoichi S, Yamagata Z, Tomiwa K, Japan Children's Study Group. Early television exposure and children’s behavioral and social outcomes at age 30 months. J Epidemiol. 2010;20 Suppl 2:S482-9. DOI: 10.2188/jea.JE20090179
45. Ansari A, Crosnoe R. Children's hyperactivity, television viewing, and the potential for child effects. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2016;61:135-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.12.018
46. Yousef S, Eapen V, Zoubeidi T, Mabrouk A. Behavioral correlation with television watching and videogame playing among children in the United Arab Emirates. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2014;18(3):203-7. DOI: 10.3109/13651501.2013.874442
47. Parkes A, Sweeting H, Wight D, Henderson M. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98(5):341-8. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-301508
48. Nathanson AI, Rasmussen EE. TV viewing compared to book reading and toy playing reduces responsive maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers. Hum Commun Res. 2011;37(4):465-87. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2011.01413.x
49. Piaget J. The genetic approach to the psychology of thought. J Educ Psychol. 1961;52(6):275-81. DOI: 10.1037/h0042963
50. Lillard AS. Playful learning and Montessori education. Am J Play. 2013;5(2):157-86.
51. Lillard AS, Li H, Boguszewski K. Television and children's executive function. Adv Child Dev Behav. 2015;48:219-48. DOI: 10.1016/bs.acdb.2014.11.006
52. Mazurek MO, Shattuck PT, Wagner M, Cooper BP. Prevalence and correlates of screen-based media use among youths with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42(8):1757-67. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-011-1413-8
53. Christakis DA. The effects of infant media usage: What do we know and what should we learn?. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98(1):8-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01027.x
54. Christakis DA, Ramirez JSB, Ramirez JM. Overstimulation of newborn mice leads to behavioral differences and deficits in cognitive performance. Sci Rep. 2012;2:546. DOI: 10.1038/srep00546
55. Higuchi S, Motohashi Y, Liu Y, Ahara M, Kaneko Y. Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on melatonin, core temperature, heart rate, and sleepiness. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(5):1773-6. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00616.2002
56. Ginsburg KR, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Communications, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics. 2007;119(1):182-91. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2697
57. Council on Communications and Media. Media and young minds. Pediatrics. 2016;138(5):e20162591. PMID: 27940793 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2591
58. Kirkorian HL, Pempek TA, Murphy LA, Schmidt ME, Anderson DR. The impact of background television on parent-child interaction. Child Dev. 2009;80(5):1350-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01337.x
59. Plowman L, Mc Pake J, Stephen C. The technologisation of childhood? young children and technology in the home. Child Soc. 2010;24(1):63-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00180.x
60. Wang Y, Mathews VP, Kalnin AJ, Mosier KM, Dunn DW, Saykin AJ, et al. Short term exposure to a violent video game induces changes in frontolimbic circuitry in adolescents. Brain Imaging Behav. 2009;3(1):38-50. DOI: 10.1007/s11682-008-9058-8

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2019 All Rights Reserved | J Educ Community Health

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb