Volume 4, Issue 1 (Spring 2017)                   J Educ Community Health 2017, 4(1): 51-58 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Moradi Z, Moradi P, Khani Jeihooni A, Dehghan A. Factors Associated with Pap Smear Implementation among Women Referring to Healthcare Centers in Fasa, Iran: An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior. J Educ Community Health. 2017; 4 (1) :51-58
URL: http://jech.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-285-en.html
1- Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.
2- Department of Public Health, School of Health, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.
3- Department of Public Health, School of Health, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran. , khani_1512@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (7160 Views)

Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among the females. This cancer is considered as a preventable disease due to having a long period before the invasion, availability of appropriate screening program, and effective treatment of primary lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to per forming regular Pap smear test based on the Theory of Planned  Behavior (TPB) among the females living in Fasa, Iran.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 married women in Fasa city in 2016. The study population was selected from the females referring to the healthcare centers of Fasa using simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by means of a three-part questionnaire, including demographic data, knowledge, and TPB constructs. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient test and logistic regression in SPSS, version 22.
Results: According to the results, 45.7% of the patients had a history of undergoing a Pap smear test, and 20.7% of them performed this test regularly. The results indicated that knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were the predictors of intention and behavior of Pap smear test among the women (P<0.05). These components accounted for 57.4% and 31.6% of the intention and behavior variance, respectively.
Conclusion: As the findings of this study indicated, it is possible to increase the level of screening behaviors among the women by improving their awareness, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. This measure in turn plays a significant role in the prevention and control of cervical cancer.

Full-Text [PDF 848 kb]   (1537 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Article | Subject: Cancer Prevention
Received: 2017/03/18 | Accepted: 2017/05/29

1. Aldrich T, Becker D, García SG, Lara D. Mexican physicians’ knowledge and attitudes about the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: a national survey. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81(2):135-41. [DOI] [PubMed]
2. Agénor M, Krieger N, Austin SB, Haneuse S, Gottlieb BR. Sexual orientation disparities in Papanicolaou test use among US women: the role of sexual and reproductive health services. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(2):e68-73. [DOI] [PubMed]
3. Novak E. Berek & Novak's gynecology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
4. Cohen D, Austin RM, Gilbert C, Freij R, Zhao C. Follow-up outcomes in a large cohort of patients with human papillomavirus–negative ASC-H cervical screening test results. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138(4):517-23. [DOI] [PubMed]
5. Winkler J, Bingham A, Coffey P, Handwerker WP. Women's participation in a cervical cancer screening program in northern Peru. Health Educ Res. 2008;23(1):10-24. [DOI] [PubMed]
6. Aghajani H, Eatemad K, Goya M, Ramezani R, Modirian MNF, Nadali F. Iranian annual of national cancer registration report 2008-2009. Tehran: Center Disease Control; 2011. [Persian]
7. Jalalvandi M, Khodadoostan M. Married women and pap smear, what they know? how they do? Iran J Nurs. 2005;18(41):139-44.
8. Waller J, Bartoszek M, Marlow L, Wardle J. Barriers to cervical cancer screening attendance in England: a population-based survey. J Med Screen. 2009;16(4):199-204. [DOI] [PubMed]
9. Daryani S, Shojaeezadeh D, Batebi A, Charati JY, Naghibi A. The effect of education based on a health belief model in women's practice with regard to the Pap smear test. J Cancer Policy. 2016;8:51-6. [DOI]
10. Chaudhuri S, Dutt R, Goswami S, Roychowdhury J. Awareness about cervical cancer screening among reproductive aged women attending gynaecology outpatient department in ESI PGIMSR & ESIC medical college & Hospital, Joka, Kolkata. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4(4):1319-23.
11. Karimy M, Gallali M, Niknami S, Aminshokravi F, Tavafian S. The effect of health education program based on health belief model on the performance of Pap smear test among women referring to health care centers in Zarandieh. J Jahrom Univ Med Sci. 2012;10(1):53-9.
12. Montano DE, Kasprzyk D. Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. New York: Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice; 2015.
13. Jalilian F, Emdadi S. Factors related to regular undergoing Pap-smear test: application of theory of planned behavior. J Res Health Sci. 2011;11(2):103-8. [PubMed]
14. Mahdavifar M, Sabzevari S, Harandi TF. Using health belief model for assessing health believes about papsmear in women referred to health care centers in Bandar Abbas, Iran. J Health Dev. 2015;4(2):133-45. [Persian]
15. Donati S, Giambi C, Declich S, Salmaso S, Filia A, Ciofi degli Atti ML, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention among young adult Italian women. Vaccine. 2012;30(12):2075-82. [DOI] [PubMed]
16. Austin LT, Ahmad F, McNally MJ, Stewart DE. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women: a literature review using the health belief model. Womens Health Issues. 2002;12(3):122-8. [PubMed]
17. Gibson AM. A study of the relationship between prevention and barriers to human papillomavirus/cervical cancer vaccination among African-American women in Georgia. [PhD Dissertation]. Georgia: Clark Atlanta University; 2015.
18. Radecki Breitkopf C, Pearson HC. A theory-based approach to understanding follow-up of abnormal Pap tests. J Health Psychol. 2009;14(3):361-71. [DOI] [PubMed]
19. Mahas R. The psychosocial antecedents that predict women’s failure to meet pap test screening national recommendations. [PhD Dissertation]. Toledo: University of Toledo; 2016.
20. Linton D. Pap smear intention among rural southeast Louisiana women. [PhD Dissertation]. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing; 2009.
21. Ratanasiripong NT, Cheng A-L, Enriquez M. What college women know, think, and do about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine. Vaccine. 2013;31(10):1370-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
22. Chirayil EI, Thompson CL, Burney S. Predicting human papilloma virus vaccination and pap smear screening intentions among young singaporean women using the theory of planned behavior. Sage Open. 2014;4(4):2158244014554961.
23. Behbakht K, Lynch A, Teal S, Degeest K, Massad S. Social and cultural barriers to Papanicolaou test screening in an urban population. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(6):1355-61. [DOI] [PubMed]
24. Dydarlu A. Effect of educational intervention based on the theory of developed reasoned action to promote of self-management in women with type 2 diabetes. [Phd Thesis]. Tehran: School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2011. [Persian]
25. Keshavarz Z, Simbar M, Ramezankhani A. Factors for performing breast and cervix cancer screening by Iranian female workers: a qualitative-model study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(6):1517-22. [PubMed]
26. Lu HY. Determinants of intentions among Taiwanese women to seek information regarding cervical cancer. J Nurs Res. 2014;22(2):101-10. [DOI] [PubMed]
27. Ogilvie GS, Smith LW, Van Niekerk DJ, Khurshed F, Krajden M, Saraiya M, et al. Women's intentions to receive cervical cancer screening with primary human papillomavirus testing. Int J Cancer. 2013;133(12):2934-43. [DOI] [PubMed]
28. Sargazi M, Mohseni M, Safar-Navade M, Iran-Pour A, Mirzaee M, Jahani Y. Effect of an educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on behaviors leading to early diagnosis of breast cancer among women referred to health care centers in Zahedan in 2013. Iran J Breast Dis. 2014;7(2):45-55. [Persian]
29. Askelson NM, Campo S, Lowe JB, Smith S, Dennis LK, Andsager J. Using the theory of planned behavior to predict mothers’ intentions to vaccinate their daughters against HPV. J Sch Nurs. 2010;26(3):194-202. [DOI] [PubMed]
30. Cooke R, French DP. How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis. Psychol Health. 2008;23(7):745-65. [DOI] [PubMed]
31. Walsh JC. Increasing screening uptake for a cervical smear test: predictors of attendance and the use of action plans in prior non-attenders. Irish J Psychol. 2005;26(1-2):65-73. [DOI]
32. Teitelman AM, Stringer M, Nguyen GT, Hanlon AL, Averbuch T, Stimpfel AW. Social cognitive and clinical factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation among urban, economically disadvantaged women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2011;40(6):691-701. [DOI] [PubMed]
33. Esber A, McRee AL, Norri Turner A, Phuka J, Norris A. Factors influencing Malawian women's willingness to self-collect samples for human papillomavirus testing. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2017;43(2):135-41. [DOI] [PubMed]
34. Roncancio AM, Ward KK, Sanchez IA, Cano MA, Byrd TL, Vernon SW, et al. Using the theory of planned behavior to understand cervical cancer screening among Latinas. Health Educ Behav. 2015;42(5):621-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
35. Armitage CJ, Conner M. Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: a meta‐analytic review. Br J Soc Psychol. 2001;40(4):471-99. [PubMed]
36. Jeihooni AK, Mousavi SF, Hatami M, Bahmandoost M. Knee osteoarthritis preventive behaviors in women over 40 years referred to health centers in Shiraz, Iran: application of theory of planned behavior. Int J Musculoskelet Pain Prev. 2017;2(1):215-21.
37. Rezabeigi Davarani E, Khanjani N, Falahi M, Daneshi S, Iranpour A. Breast Self-examination and its effective factors based on the theory of planned behavior among women in Kerman, Iran. J Educ Community Health. 2016;3(3):1-8. [DOI]
38. Gholamnia-Shirvani Z, Ghofranipour F, Gharakhanlo R, Kazemnezhad A. Improving and maintaining physical activity and anthropometric indices in females from Tehran: application of the theory of planned behavior. J Educ Community Health. 2016;2(4):13-24. [DOI]
39. Karami-Matin B, Barati M, Javadzade H, Reisi M, Hatamzadeh N, Mahboubi M. Knowledge of cervical cancer: a cross sectional study among women’s in the west of Iran. Int Busin Manag. 2016;10(15):3010-4. [DOI]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | J Educ Community Health

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb