Aims: Childbearing is a value in Islamic Iranian culture. Due to the decrease in the total fertility rate in Iran during the three decades, following the change in population policies in 1990-2010, having one child has become a common phenomenon in the country. This study aimed to determine the effect of education on childbearing intention in one-child women based on the theory of planned behavior.
Materials & Methods: In this interventional study in Farooj in 2018, 90 one-child women were randomly selected and assigned into intervention and control. Before the intervention, the subjects were surveyed using demographic information, planned behavior theory, and Miller's fertility motivation questionnaires. Then, based on the educational needs, four 60-minutes training sessions were provided to the intervention group for two months, and the control group did not receive training. The questionnaires were filled out by the intervention and control groups immediately and three months after training. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24 software through a significance level of 0.05.
Findings: There was no significant difference between the two groups before the intervention regarding the mean score of perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, positive motivation, and negative motivation towards childbearing intention and demographic variables (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in attitude scores, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on the childbearing intention in one-child women in both intervention and control groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Social, cultural, religious, and especially economic conditions of the society are effective in improving the attitude of childbearing, which should be considered along with educational interventions to achieve better results from education.