Background and Objectives: Smoking is one of the main causes of various diseases. Due to an increasing trend of smoking among university students, we sought to determine the predictors of adoption of smoking preventive behaviors in university students using the Health Belief Model (HBM).
Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 340 students residing in dormitories of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The participants were selected using single-stage cluster sampling method. We utilized a researcher-made questionnaire based on HBM for data collection. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis were used in SPSS, version 16.
Results: The participants obtained 45.91% of the score for the adoption of smoking preventive behaviors. From among the independent variables, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers constructs received the lowest scores, while perceived benefits and self-efficacy obtained the highest scores. Multiple regression analysis reflected that perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy were predictors of adoption of smoking preventive behaviors. Overall, these variables could predict 24.6% of behavioral changes.
Conclusion: In designing educational interventions, special emphasis should be placed on the variables susceptibility and self-efficacy constructs as the most important predictors of adopting smoking preventive behaviors among university students.