Submitted: 22 Oct 2022
Revision: 24 Apr 2023
Accepted: 05 May 2023
ePublished: 30 Jun 2023
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J Educ Community Health. 2023;10(2): 72-78.
doi: 10.34172/jech.2023.2084

Scopus ID: 85171805709
  Abstract View: 140
  PDF Download: 91

Health Literacy

Original Article

Factors Associated With Cigarette Smoking Based on the Integrated Model of Protection Motivation Theory With Health Literacy

Sahar Mohammadnabizadeh 1* ORCID logo, Mohammad Vahedian-Shahroodi 2,1, Ali Asghar Najafpoor 1,3, Vahid Ghavami 4,1

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: Mohammadnabizadehs@mums.ac.ir


Background: Although researchers have performed several smoking-related investigations, limited achievements have been found in decreasing rates of smoking because most of them were not implemented based on the appropriate theory. This study aimed to apply the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to examine the relationships between protection motivation theory (PMT) constructs, health literacy, and smoking behavior among university students.

Methods: In the current cross-sectional investigation, 542 students of Mashhad Universities of Applied Sciences were collected using cluster sampling on August 2022. The data collection tools were sociodemographic, PMT, and health literacy questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 24. Moreover, the SEM was implemented by applying Amos. Pearson correlation examination was performed to study the relationships between behavior and other variables. Moreover, SEM was performed using Amos 18, and several indexes were calculated, including chi-square/degrees of freedom (χ2 /df), goodness of fit index, root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and Tucker Lewis index.

Results: The resulting of the smoking behavior model demonstrated an acceptable fit with the studied data. Smoking behavior was significantly associated with higher intention extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and the perceived cost and lower response efficacy, self-efficacy, and perceived vulnerability; nonetheless, intention and self-efficacy had more effects, respectively (P<0.05).

Conclusion: It can be more beneficial to increase the people’s self-efficacy in order to further trust themselves so that they can successfully avoid smoking via reinforcement of the coping skills.

Please cite this article as follows: Mohammadnabizadeh S, Vahedian-Shahroodi M, Najafpoor AA, Ghavami V. Factors associated with cigarette smoking based on the integrated model of protection motivation theory with health literacy. J Educ Community Health. 2023; 10(2):71-77. doi:10.34172/jech.2023.2084
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