Background: Relapse is prevalent following substance abuse treatment. This study aimed to estimate and identify the factors that contribute to substance use relapse among addicts in the southern region of Kerman.
Methods: A total of 390 individuals seeking treatment for addiction in 2021 were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected through a researcher-developed questionnaire, which included demographic information and the health action process approach (HAPA) constructs regarding relapse prevention. Descriptive statistics, including frequency distribution tables, means, and standard deviations, were used to summarize the data. The correlation between HAPA constructs was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The Kruskal-Wallis test and structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS 24 software were utilized to analyze the data.
Results: The participants had a mean age of 33.39 years. The results (SEM) showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between action self-efficacy, behavioral intention, action planning, and the frequency of substance use relapse. The constructs of coping self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, action planning, and coping planning accounted for 18% of the variance in substance use relapse frequency.
Conclusion: Motivational and voluntary phase constructs have a significant role in substance use relapse. Additionally, HAPA helps identify the factors contributing to relapse.