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Submitted: 11 Nov 2023
Revision: 30 Dec 2023
Accepted: 03 Jan 2024
ePublished: 08 Apr 2024
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J Educ Community Health. Inpress.
doi: 10.34172/jech.2702
  Abstract View: 74

General

Review Article

Non-pharmacological management of hypertension in Arab countries: A scoping review

Nasir Asad Matani* ORCID logo, Intan Idiana Hassan, AJ Rohana, Mohammad Nazzal
*Corresponding Author: Email: nmatani@student.usm.my

Abstract

Background: Non-pharmacological interventions, like healthy dietary approaches and physical activity, have always been a crucial part of hypertension control in clinical practice. These non-pharmacological interventions, however, have never been reviewed in Arab countries literature. This review quantifies and evaluates non-pharmacological interventional studies conducted in Arab countries until 2023. Methods: Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Science Direct, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, Springer, Google Scholar, and CINAHL were explored since database inception until September 2023. Articles of relevance were screened based on their title and abstract for selection criteria. Eligible studies were reviewed, and information was retrieved. Jadad scores and the Downs and Black checklist were used to evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies, respectively. Results: A total of 12 RCT and 5 quasi-experimental studies met the selection criteria. The studied interventions were eHealth applications, educational programs, wet cupping, physical exercise, adherence therapy, green tea, lifestyle interventions, dietary approach to stop hypertension, motivational interviewing, and cold hibiscus beverages. The most used outcome measure was blood pressure. Nine studies scored high quality. The low and neutral quality scores were mainly due to loss of blindness, poor reporting of participants’ characteristics, loss of follow-up, and failure to account for potential confounders. Conclusions: There is a scarcity in hypertension non-pharmacological interventional studies, aside from the low or modest quality of nearly 50% of them. Further high-quality interventional studies are recommended in the areas of dietary approaches (especially DASH), exercise, theory-based education, and behavioral counseling in Arab countries
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