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Submitted: 12 Nov 2015
Accepted: 21 Dec 2015
ePublished: 30 Mar 2016
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J Educ Community Health. 2016;2(4): 25-33.
doi: 10.21859/jech-02044
  Abstract View: 655
  PDF Download: 427

Cancer Prevention

Research Article

The Study of Pap Smear Conduction and its Related Factors Based on Health Belief Model in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in Qom During 2014

Siamak Mohebi 1* ORCID logo, Gholamreza Sharifirad 1, Zabihollah Gharlipour 1, Aziz Kamran 2

1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
2 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.
*Corresponding Author: Email: smohebi@muq.ac.ir

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Pap smear is a screening test for diagnosing cervical cancer in females. It is considered a health-promotion exam, and it has been shown that this test can prevent up to %60 of all deaths resulting from cervical cancer. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of this test and its related factors based on the health belief model in females referring to health centers in Qom.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 320 females, who had health records and had referred to health centers in Qom in 2014 were selected using the multistage random sampling method and through following inclusion and exclusion criteria. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, awareness questions, and questions based on the health belief model was used for data collection. The data were finally analyzed by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level.

Results: Overall, %11.25 of the subjects regularly underwent Pap smear screening, %51.87 irregularly participated in cervical cancer screening programs, and %36.88 did not undergo the tests. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that the mean scores of the health belief model constructs were significantly different in terms of Pap smear screening (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The participants did not consider cervical cancer a serious disease. Even women who felt vulnerable tried to hide it. Therefore, while perceived vulnerability and perceived severity of the disease risk was low in them, they perceived more barriers and, for this reason, the level of utilization of Pap smear was undesirable.

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