Background: Breastfeeding affects long-term child health and improves the quality of their lives. This study sought to compare educational interventions based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in pregnant women and individuals influential to their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first six months of an infant’s life.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed from 2020 to 2021 on pregnant women, who were at their>30 weeks of pregnancy, and relatives influential in their life in Jahrom, southern Iran. Sampling was conducted by the stratified random method, and the sample size was determined as 90 (30 cases in each group). The study consisted of two intervention groups and a control group. Data collection tools included the demographic questionnaire and the standard TPB questionnaire for EBF. In the first stage, the questionnaires were completed by all three groups. The second stage involved an educational intervention. The training lasted five weeks. In the third stage, the questionnaire was completed again six months later. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Results: Based on the results, a significant difference was observed in intervention group 1 in terms of the attitude construct (P=0.009) before [Median (IQR)=34.5 (6)] and after [Median (IQR)=36 (5.25)] the educational intervention. Similarly, a significant difference was found in intervention group 2 regarding the subjective norm construct (P<0.001) before [Median (IQR)=25 (4.25)] and after [Median (IQR)=30 (4)] the educational intervention.
Conclusion: Overall, in addition to pregnant women, their subjective norms should be considered in health education and promotion programs to improve EBF.