Background: Sleep quality and quantity disorders are among the most important problems in old age. Healthy sleep behaviors are among the best ways to deal with sleep disorders among the elderly. This study aimed to determine the socio-cognitive determinants predicting healthy sleep behaviors among the elderly who had been referred to the retirement centers in Hamadan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 288 elderly people who had been referred to the retirement centers in Hamadan, Iran in 2020, and were selected through stratified random sampling. Data were collected online using a self-administered questionnaire with items on demographic characteristics and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16) using Pearson correlation, independent t test, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression tests at the significance level of 0.05.
Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age of respondents in this study was 67.2 (±6.3) years. Perceived behavior control (β=0.409), attitude (β=0.251), and subjective norms (β=0.205) were stronger predictors of healthy sleep behavior intention among the elderly, respectively; collectively, they accounted for 28.5% of the variation in sleep health behavior intention. Behavioral intention (β=0.429) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.167) were also predictors of healthy sleep behaviors among the elderly. There was a statistically significant relationship between the educational level and healthy sleep behaviors (P<0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that the development and implementation of educational programs based on the TPB for the improvement of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control can play an effective role in promoting healthy sleep behaviors and sleep quality among the elderly.