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Submitted: 14 Dec 2020
Accepted: 22 Feb 2021
ePublished: 30 Sep 2021
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J Educ Community Health. 2021;8: 165-172.
doi: 10.52547/jech.8.3.165

Scopus ID: 85119657865
  Abstract View: 132
  PDF Download: 50

General

Research Article

Fear and COVID-19 Protective Behaviors among High School Students in Hamadan, Iran; Application of an Extended Parallel Process Model

Samaneh Shirahmadi 1 ORCID logo, Saeed Bashirian 2, Majid Barati 2, Ensieh Jenabi 3, Mohammad Haghighi 4, Farshid Shamsaei 5, Rashid Heidari-Moghadam 6, Salman Khazaei 7* ORCID logo, Sepideh Zareian 8, Mohammad Poordavood 9, Yaser Nankali 9, Nematollah Bahiraee 9, Shahnaz Farzian 9, Aliakbar Asgari 9

1 Department of Community Oral Health, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
3 Autism Spectrum Disorders Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
5 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
6 Department of Ergonomics, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
7 Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
8 Office of Vice-Chancellor for Research and Technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
9 State Office of Education in Hamadan, Hamadan, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: salmankhazaei61@gmail.com

Abstract

Aims: Throughout the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the role of students in transmitting the infection has received special attention aiming at protecting the younger generation against COVID-19 and other known respiratory diseases. This research aimed to specify factors related to Covid-19 preventing behaviors in high school students.

Instrument & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2852 students aged 13 to 18 in Hamadan in 2020. Participants were selected using the multistage cluster sampling method. The data were collected with a researcher-made EPPM questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by Stata 14.2 software using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests.

Findings: The vast majority of students (67.02%) were in the danger control response phase. The response efficacy (77.3%) and perceived efficacy (75.3%) had the highest percentage of the mean from the maximum obtainable score among constructs of the model. There was a significant difference between categories of the EPPM model with doing healthy behaviors. Moreover, the proportion of doing health behaviors was significantly higher in students in the danger control phase.

Conclusion: The predominance of the perceived threat of COVID-19 on the perceived efficacy affects preventive health behaviors. Therefore, a theory-based behavioral modification program can be developed based on gender among high school students. Higher grade students and poor socioeconomic status require intense educational interventions to modify their hygienic behaviors.

Keywords: Student, Health Behavior, COVID-19, Educational Models
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