Submitted: 13 Dec 2017
Accepted: 13 Oct 2018
ePublished: 30 Dec 2018
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J Educ Community Health. 2018;5(3): 63-72.
doi: 10.21859/jech.5.3.63
  Abstract View: 4936
  PDF Download: 3349


Review Article

Designing, Constructing, and Analyzing Likert Scale Data

Alireza Mirahmadizadeh 1 ORCID logo, Hamed Delam 2* ORCID logo, Mozhgan Seif 2, Reyhaneh Bahrami 3

1 Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Epidemiology Department, Health Faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3 “Student Research Committee” and “Public Health Department, Health Faculty”, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: hameddelam8@yahoo.com


Background & Objective: Today, Likert scale data is used in many studies in medical, educational, and psychometric fields to understand the attitudes of individuals. This study was conducted with the aim of correctly understanding how to design a Likert scale and to analyse the issues and challenges in determining the reliability and analysis of Likert scale data.

Instruments & Methods: In the current review study, search engines such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched between May and August 2017. Based on the searched terms, 532 articles were primarily obtained; according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, eventually 60 articles were examined.

Results: Using the 5-point scale is more common than other multi-choice options. Considering the option as intervals encourage people to answer the questions. While using Likert scale data, there are always decision-making challenges, especially when discussing the type of test to be used for parametric or non-parametric tests. If there is a presumption of the normalization of the distance data, independent t-test is used for the two separate groups.

Conclusion: In most of the Likert scale studies that have been carried out so far, there is some confusion or disagreement with how to design, construct, and analyse its data. Ultimately, although there is no detailed and comprehensive agreement on the design and analysis of Likert data, this study, with a general summary in this regard, has greatly curtailed the confusion.

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